Gehörschutz – irreversible Schäden verhindern

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Die Krankheit ist deshalb so tückisch, da sie schleichend kommt und unheilbar ist. Betroffene hören zunächst die höheren Töne nicht, erst später ist die Wahrnehmung der mittleren und tiefen Töne beeinträchtigt.
Die besondere Tragik besteht darin, dass jeder einzelne Fall von Lärmschwerhörigkeit mit dem richtigen Gehörschutz zu 100 % hätte vermieden werden können.

Lärm hat nicht nur auf unser Gehör einen schädlichen Einfluss, sondern kann auf den gesamten Körper negative Auswirkungen haben. So können Kopfschmerzen, Stoffwechselprobleme, Verdauungsbeschwerden und viele andere Beschwerden durch eine Lärmbelastung entstehen.

1 Geschädigte Haarzellen
2 Kopfschmerzen
3 Tinnitus, Gehörschäden
4 Erhöhtes Herzinfarkt- und Bluthochdruckrisiko
5 Erhöhte Adrenalinausschüttung mit Stoffwechselproblemen als Folge
6 Verdauungsprobleme
7 Verminderte Durchblutung

Ab wann muss Gehörschutz getragen werden?

Ein Geräusch entsteht durch Schwingungen, die sich in der Luft als Druckwellen ausbreiten. Je kraftvoller die Druckwellen, desto lauter das Geräusch. Diese sind messbar und werden in der Einheit Dezibel (dB) angegeben. Die Belastung eines Schallpegels für das Ohr wird in der Einheit dB(A) gemessen.

Den Schutz von Arbeitnehmern in einem lärmbelastetem Arbeitsumfeld regelt die EG Lärmschutz-Richtlinie 2003/10/EG. Darin ist festgelegt, dass ab einer Lärmbelästigung von 80 dB ein Gehörschutz vom Arbeitgeber bereitgestellt werden muss und ab 85 dB ein geeigneter Gehörschutz vom Arbeitnehmer getragen werden muss:

1 Keine Tragepflicht: ⌀ Lärmpegel < 80 dB, Impulslärm < 135 dB
2 Bereitstellung, aber keine Tragepflicht: ⌀ Lärmpegel 80 dB bis 85 dB oder Impulslärm 135 dB bis 137 dB
3 Bereitstellung und Tragepflicht: ⌀ Lärmpegel > 85 dB, Impulslärm > 137 dB

Dabei sind die sicherheitstechnischen Anforderungen der Normen EN 352-1 bis EN 352-8 zu erfüllen.

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Den richtigen Gehörschutz wählen

Folgende Punkte müssen bei der Auswahl des Gehörschutzes beachtet werden:
• Ermitteln der Lärmbelastung am Arbeitsplatz.
• Persönliche Präferenzen beachten, da diese entscheidenden Einfluss auf die Trageakzeptanz haben.
• Den SNR-Wert bei Gehörschutzprodukten beachten: Dieser gibt an, wie stark das Produkt den vorherrschenden Lärmpegel absenkt.
• Bei genauer Kenntnis der Frequenz empfiehlt sich die Gehörschutz-Auswahl nach H-Wert (hochfrequent), M-Wert (mittelfrequent) oder L-Wert (niederfrequent). In den meisten industriellen Fertigungen herrschen mittelfrequente Lärmbelastungen vor.
• Die Lärmdämmung nicht zu hoch wählen: Unter 70 dB Restschallpegel kommt es zu Überprotektion, was zu Verständnisproblemen und Isolationsgefühl führen
• Restschallpegel sollte zwischen 70 und 80 dB liegen.

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Korrekturwert: Je nach verwendeter Gehörschutzart muss ein Korrekturwert für Varianz berücksichtigt werden: Für Kapselgehörschutz 5dB, Mehrweg-Gehörstöpsel 5dB, Einweg-Gehörstöpsel 9dB und bei Bügelgehörschutz 5dB. Der Restschallpegel lässt sich wie oben gezeigt ermitteln.

 

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Wichtig: Achten Sie auf 100 %ige Anwendung des Gehörschutzes in lärmbelastenden Arbeitsumgebungen. Schon kurze Tragepausen führen zu vollständigem Verlust der Schutzwirkung.

Haben Sie Fragen? Unsere Experten helfen gerne jederzeit weiter:

Zum Kontakt für Gehörschutz-Beratung

Arten von Gehörschutz

Criterios de selección para protector auditivos

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Disposable earplugs

Earplugs are basically inserted into the auditory canal and are especially well-suited to moist and warm environments. They also have good attenuation levels due to filtration of the noise levels, even at low frequencies.

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Advantages:
• No perceptible weight, or only very small weight.
• Can be combined with other protective equipment.
• No heat build-up.
• High availability from dispenser systems.

In order to obtain the SNR values and hence optimum protection, correct insertion of the earplug is of critical importance.

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This is how to insert disposable earplugs correctly:
1. Roll the plug up as small as possible, taking care not to fold it. Make sure your hands are clean.
2. Reach over your head with your free hand and pull the ear upwards and backwards. Insert the plug deeply into the auditory canal.
3. & 4. Hold the plug firmly for approx. 30–40 seconds until it has fully expanded within the auditory canal. The earplugs are seated correctly in the ear if nothing is visible when viewed from the front.

This is the correct way to remove and dispose of earplugs:
When removing the earplug, pull it slowly out of the auditory canal with a slight twisting action.
After use, disposable earplugs should be disposed of in the correct manner.
 

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Re-usable earplugs

Earplugs are basically inserted into the auditory canal and, due to the washable surface, they can be used again without losing their original shape. When you leave a noisy area, the earplugs can be put away in a handy storage box.

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Advantages:
• No perceptible weight, or only very small weight.
• Can be combined with other protective equipment.
• The cord means you won’t lose them.
• Storage box for safe retention.

Disadvantages:
• Incorrect insertion reduces the attenuation performance.
• Pressure sensation when worn for long periods.
• Less suitable for fluctuating noise conditions.

In order to obtain the SNR values and hence optimum protection, correct insertion of the earplug is of critical importance.

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This is how to wear earplugs correctly:
1. Use one hand to grip the earplug by the stalk. With the other hand, pull the ear upwards and backwards whilst inserting the earplug into the auditory canal. Pulling the plug up and down during insertion increases the protective effect.
2. Even when correctly seated, the plug remains visible from the outside.

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Storage boxes:
A small storage box, with a belt clip or kidney shape depending on the manufacturer, permits handy storage of earplugs when not in use. The cord means that the earplugs can be carried round the neck during breaks in work. Make sure your clothing is clean.

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Banded earplugs

Banded earplugs are easy to use, comfortable to wear and can be put on and taken off quickly. The earplug does not sit in the auditory canal, instead it closes off the outer opening of the canal, which makes it pleasant to wear. It is suitable for working environments with high temperatures, since no heat build-up occurs. Earplugs can be replaced and the band can be re-used.

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Advantages:
• Quick and easy positioning.
• Pleasant to wear.
• Low weight.

In order to obtain the SNR values and hence optimum protection, correct insertion of the earplug is of critical importance.

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This is how to wear banded earplugs correctly:
1. Grip the band under the chin with both hands.
2. Pulling the ear upwards and downwards whilst inserting the earplug increases the attenuation rating.
3. To check the seating, in a noisy environment press both earplugs slightly inwards. This should not make any great difference to the noise.

This is how to exchange the earplugs on banded ear defenders:
4. Pull the dirty earplug off the band.
5. Insert the new earplugs on to the band with a slight twist.

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Shell-type ear defenders

Shell-type ear defenders are particularly suitable for use in dirty environments and in environments where the noise level is continually changing. The capsule envelopes the entire ear, so the headband provides stable and comfortable seating. Nothing is inserted into the auditory canal. They are particularly suitable for persons whose auditory canals are very narrow and sensitive to pressure. Head straps, neck straps and chin straps are available with suitable mountings for use on safety helmets.

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Advantages:
• High attenuation rates can be achieved.
• Easy to operate.
• No sensation of pressure in the ear.
• Easy to check if they are being worn.

Disadvantages:
• Sweating under the shell.
• Higher weight.
• Cannot always be combined with other protective equipment.

In order to obtain the SNR values and hence optimum protection, correct insertion of the earplug is of critical importance.

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This is how to wear shell-type ear defenders correctly:
1. Fold-away shell-type ear defenders from inwards to outwards.
2. Place the shells over your ears.
3. Adjust the position of the band upwards and downwards.

The following should be taken into account during use:
4. In order to avoid leakage, hair and the arms of glasses should not lie between the ear defender and the ear.
5. The ears should no longer be visible.

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In combination with a safety helmet:
1. The shell-type ear defenders can easily be put on or taken off by clicking on and off.
2. When the ear defenders are not in use they can easily be swung away upwards.

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Electronic hearing protection

Hearing protection with special functions enables communication and simultaneous protection in the event of high noise levels. The noise-level-dependent attenuation technology means that warnings and instructions can audibly be received. Harmful noise is damped to a level less than 82 dB in order to protect hearing. Warning signals, discussions and process sounds are easily perceptible and communication over great distances in conjunction with mobile phones and radio devices is disruption-free. Additional functions, such as volume regulation of level-dependent functions, balance control, equalizer and volume control for external input signals, are available.

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Advantages:
• For demanding working environments.
• Communication by radio or mobile phone.
• Built-in conversational electronics fur use when work is monotonous.
• Environmental noises are heard but noise pulses are automatically blocked off.
• Increases in productivity and motivation of employees

Disadvantages:
• Unsuitable for occasional wearing.
• Higher weight.
• Heat build-up under the shell.

In order to obtain the SNR values and hence optimum protection, correct insertion of the earplug is of critical importance.

Diverse product range and personal consulting

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At the Hoffmann Group, you will find a wide range of hearing protection products from selected and high-quality manufacturers for various fields of application: from the production hall to the construction site, right through to working in the forest or private use. We are able to supply high-quality earplugs and dispensers, banded earplugs, shell-type ear protectors, electronic hearing protection and matching accessories.

Take advantage of our know-how in the field of PPE: We will provide you with professional support on all relevant issues from risk analysis, product choice, wearing tests right through to training your employees. Our highly qualified team of specialists will advise you personally on the subject of hearing protection. Get in touch with us, whether that be in person, by phone or via e-mail.

Directives and standards for hearing protection

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On 21 April 2018 the PPE regulation 2016/425 superseded the previous directive 86/686/EEC. This resulted in substantial changes to the classification of products in the field of personal protective equipment. As a result, the EU recognised that harmful noise causes irreversible harm to health and raised the classification of hearing protection products to risk category III. Special provisions are applicable to products in risk category III. Accordingly, in many EU member states, practical instruction by the company of the employees for category III protective equipment is a mandatory requirement. From 21 April 2019, manufacturers are only allowed to introduce to market hearing protection products in compliance with the new PPE regulation.

The following European standards apply to hearing protection:
EN 352-1: Shell-type ear defenders
EN 352-2: Earplugs
EN 352-3: Helmet ear defenders
EN 352-4: Level-dependent shell-type ear defenders
EN 352-5: Shell-type ear defenders with active noise compensation
EN 352-6: Shell-type ear defenders with communication equipment
EN 352-7: Level-dependent attenuating earplugs
EN 352-8: Audio shell-type ear defenders for conversational applications (e.g. radio)
EN 458: Recommendations for the selection, use, care and maintenance of hearing protection

Preguntas frecuentes sobre protección auditiva

¿A partir de que nivel de ruido es necesaria protección auditiva?
Si el nivel de ruido supera los 85dB y el ruido de impulso es superior a 137 dB es obligatorio la utilización de equipos de protección auditiva.

¿Hasta que nivel de ruido se pueden emplear tapones de protección?
Esto varía en función del valor SNR( coeficiente de aislamiento.

 

¿Tiene algunas preguntas? ¿Desea recibir una consulta sobre los productos EPIS?

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- Les atendemos individualmente

- Análisis de riesgos, ayuda a la hora de elegir el producto, muestras, formaciones y ofertas especiales de servicios (Programa de guantes adecuados, Programa de cuidados de piel)

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